Monday, September 4, 2017

Resveratrol Keep Us Young

Resveratrol believe can make our body keep young, so many people are hunting for this materials. Resveratrol have effect to slow down of deterioration of our skin and body organ functional keep good, but is not right if can increase longevity of our age.

Scientist have studied, conducted and supported in part by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health, is a follow-up to 2006 findings that resveratrol improves health and longevity of overweight, aged mice. The report confirms previous results suggesting the compound, found naturally in foods like grapes and nuts, may mimic, in mice, some of the effects of dietary or calorie restriction, the most effective and reproducible way found to date to alleviate age-associated disease in mammals. The researcher also emphasized, however, that their findings are based on research in mice, not in humans, and have no immediate and direct application to people, whose health is influenced by a variety of factors beyond those which may be represented in the animal models.

The study is a collaborative effort between the laboratories of Rafael de Cabo, Ph.D., of the Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology at the NIA; David A. Sinclair, Ph.D., of the Glenn Laboratories for Molecular Biology of Aging at Harvard Medical School; and an international group of researchers. The investigators compared mice fed a standard diet, a high-calorie diet, or an every-other-day feeding regimen with or without high- or low-dose resveratrol to study the impact of resveratrol on aging and health. In previous studies, different forms of dietary restriction, including every-other-day feeding, have been shown to improve markers of health.

A major finding of the study reported today is that resveratrol prevented age-related and obesity-related cardiovascular functional decline in the mice as determined by several parameters. Total cholesterol was significantly reduced in 22-month-old non-obese mice after 10 months of resveratrol treatment, although triglyceride levels had only a slight, non-significant trend toward a decrease. Further, the aortas of 18-month-old obese and non-obese mice treated with resveratrol functioned significantly better than untreated mice. Resveratrol also moderated inflammation in the heart.
In addition to cardiovascular function, the scientists found resveratrol to have a variety of positive effects on other age-related problems in mice:
  • Treated mice tended to have better bone health, as measured by thickness, volume, mineral content and density, and bending stiffness compared to the non-treated control group.
  • At 30 months of age, resveratrol-treated mice were found to have reduced cataract formation, a condition found to increase with age in control-group mice.
  • Resveratrol enhanced balance and motor coordination in aged animals. Scientists found significant improvement in performance at 21 and 24 months versus 15 months in the resveratrol-treated mice but not in the untreated mice.
  • Resveratrol partially mimicked the effects of dietary restriction on the gene expression profiles of liver, skeletal muscle and adipose (fatty) tissue in mice.
  • Along with determining the effect of resveratrol on the health of mice, scientists also studied the effect of resveratrol on longevity.
Even this experiment can help us more know that our health can keep more longer but until know there is no proven reality that our age can make longer, because this will interferes with nature rule or God rule about our age are limited to certain time and no body can break this rule.
Researchers still have much to learn before resveratrol can be recommended for human use. Basic questions of safety and biological effect in humans remain to be studied experimentally.
Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a compound found largely in the skins of red grapes, is a component of Ko-jo-kon, an oriental medicine used to treat diseases of the blood vessels, heart and liver. It came to scientific attention only four years ago, however, as a possible explanation for the "French Paradox" -- the low incidence of heart disease among the French people, who eat a relatively high-fat diet. Today, it is touted by manufacturers and being examined by scientific researchers as an antioxidant, an anti-cancer agent, and a phytoestrogen. It is also being advertised on the Internet.

So don’t to rely on to this substance to make age longevity, the realize is that your age is your destiny, your age just in certain long time and will end when that time is come and you can’t avoid it.

Science Laboratory Equipment

Every science experiment using many kind of equipment, the equipment use depends on the kind of science that is researched. Science is now a part of almost knowledge, such as engineering, technology, physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology and many others. So the equipment of science depends on the main subject.

Laboratory in biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics also have different equipment to do their experiment. Physics and Mathematics may have much similar equipment for their experiment, but with chemistry and biology may too far different. Chemistry and biology mostly have similar equipment for their laboratory. Chemist and biologist usually mostly use glass apparatus, such as pipette tube, flask glass, cylinder glass, extractor glass, measuring cylinder and many other glass equipments.

Glass Material
Glass is an amorphous substance made by heating a mixture of such materials as sand, sodium carbonate, and limestone to a temperature of about 1,300 oC (2,400 oF). It is made continuously in large tanks, powdered raw materials are fed in at one end, and molten glass emerges at other end.

Glass product quality depends on the material that composed the glass, glass equipments have many quality that depend on the material and the measuring accuracy. More accurate on measure of volume, the glass more expensive. Glass with good material will more hold up to higher temperature, glass with bad temperature doesn’t hold up of high temperature. The kind of glass material will be discussed more detail on the next articles.

Science in the New Wave

The 1960s and the New Wave.

Aldiss and Ballard published their stories in the British magazine New Worlds (1946-70), long edited by writer Michael Moorcock. Moorcock’s own fiction is closer to fantasy than to science fiction, but the authors he published attempted other approaches to break out of what they considered the too-rigid conventions of their genre. The tone of science fiction the era of the New Wave to the present is satirical, pessimistic, and anti-utopian-in contrast to attitudes at science fiction’s beginnings, which paralleled the beliefs of their day in scientific progress and prosperity for all.

The 1970s and Beyond
Many of the “golden age” authors still produce, as do almost all the writers from the 1950s and the 1960s. They were joined in the 1970s by writers of the quality of Ursula K. Le Guin, who The Dispossessed (1974), uses anthropological and sociological theories as springboards for her plots. Harlan Ellison, Norman Spinrad, Samuel R. Delany, and Robert Siverberg achieved their reputations in the 1970s. The British writer lan Watson takes on both the humanistic sciences and physics and cosmology in his work.

A notable development of the past two decades has been the growing reputation of women science fiction writers. They range from Le Guin through authors who used male pseudonyms, the most notable is James Tiptree, Jr, to Joanna Russ and Doris Lessing, in her apobalyptic novels and her many volume Sirius cycle.

The computer has given science fiction new universes to explore. From early notions that the machines would take over and rule, or produce more of their own kind and oust humanity, contemporary science-fiction writers such as William Gibson produce novels (Neuromacer, 1984) in the “cyberpunk” mode, stylistically resembling some of the early science fictions writing.

Science Fiction in Eastern Europe
The Polish writer and scientist. Stanislaw LEM is perhaps the most important contemporary European science fiction writer; his works range from mystical planetary explorations (Solaris, 1961; Eng. Trans, 1970) to comic tales about the space pilot Pirx.

Rusian space scientist Konstantin Tsiokovsky wrote, among other novels, Beyond the Planet Earth (1920; Eng. Trans, 1960), a prophetic work in the sage of space travel. After the revolution, Y. Zamiatin’s We (written 1920; Eng trans. 1924) was a profoundly dystopian work, never published in Russia. Among the many other Russian science fiction authors, the work of Alexander Belyaev and the Strugatsky have been translated into English the Strugatsky brothers have been translated into English.

Sunday, September 3, 2017

The Pulp Era

The earliest issues of Gernsback’s Amazing Stories were devoted largely to reprints of Verne Wells, and other authors of fantasy, but slowly Gernsback developed a group of science-fiction writers, most of them pulp-magazine, Astounding Stories (soon to be called Astounding Science Fiction), was founded in 1930. The science-fiction writer John W. Campbell assumed its editorship in 1937 and was an active force in the field until his death his death in 1971.

During Campbell’s editorship, the first generation of writers in England and America who had been nurtured on Amazing Stories and the early Astounding Stories began to produce their own science fiction literature. Under Campbell’s tutelage, they established science fiction’s “golden age”. Issac Asimov, L. Sprague de Camp, Robert A. Heinlein, Theodore Sturgeon, and A.E. Van Vogt were among the most important of this generation. In the 1950s they were joined by Arthur Clarke, Frederik Pohl, and others whose work extended the reach of science fiction.

Science Fiction Enters the Mainstream

The sudden and horrifying use of nuclear weapons in a way that had been predicted by science fiction for years brought the field a new prominence. Science was read as serious literature for the first time, largely because it was judged to be attracted to the field and brought out anthologies drawn almost exclusively from Astounding, as well reprinting older science fiction novels and publishing new works.